States reported on their use of levels of cognitive demand or complexity with the development of mathematics assessments. Three levels of depth of knowledge (DOK 1-3) were reported by most states (level 1 recall; level 2 skills/concepts, level 3 strategic thinking). A small number of states reported that they define and refer to cognitive levels in the assessment reports provided to teachers and the public. State alignment studies for grades 3-8 assessments to state standards were referenced on this page: